Cybersecurity is the science of protecting networks, devices, and data from unauthorized access or criminal use and the practice of ensuring confidentiality, integrity and availability [CIA Triad] of information; and is achieved through products and people, as well as the policies and procedures used to safeguard IT assets, and all assets needed to carry out and complete mission critical objectives.
Even though cybersecurity is considered a science, safeguarding networks, devices, and data requires creativity. No two networks are alike, data sets for every organization are different, and technology continuously evolves - as do cyber threats. There are no canned cybersecurity solutions.
Cybersecurity is not IT. Information technology focuses on the systems that store and transmit digital information; cybersecurity focuses on protecting the digital information stored and transmitted within those systems.
There are several different types of cybersecurity:
Critical infrastructure security - the security of systems and networks that are essential to the functioning of a society or economy, including energy, water, transportation, health, finance, food, etc. [Note: there are 16 critical infrastructure sectors as defined by the Critical Infrastructure Security Agency. The list can be found here: https://www.cisa.gov/topics/critical-infrastructure-security-and-resilience/critical-infrastructure-sectors]
Application security [APPSEC] - the process of finding, fixing, and preventing security vulnerabilities at the application level in hardware, software, and development processes. It includes guidance on measures for application design and development and through the whole lifecycle including after the application has launched.
Network security - protects your network and data from breaches, intrusions and other threats, and involves access control, virus and antivirus software, application security, network analytics, types of network-related security [endpoint, web, wireless], firewalls, VPN encryption and more.
Cloud security - a collection of security measures designed to protect cloud-based infrastructure, applications, and data. These measures ensure user and device authentication, data and resource access control, and data privacy protection.
Internet of Things [IoT] security - IoT Security is the act of securing Internet devices and the networks they're connected to from threats and breaches by protecting, identifying, and monitoring risks all while helping fix vulnerabilities of devices that can pose security risks.
" It is estimated that 71.1 million people fall victim to cyber crimes yearly "